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The inheritance of specific virulence in Bremia lactucae was studied in crosses involving 12 heterothallic isolates of the fungus. In one cross, virulence to eight of the II specific resistance factors examined segregated in the F1 generation. Although there were exceptions, most of the data were consistent with the hypothesis that pathogenicity was controlled by independent single loci with avirulence dominant to virulence. Linkage between loci determining virulence on R2 and R11 was confirmed. Loci controlling virulence on R5 and R8 also appeared to be linked but these may be identical R-factors. Contrary to a previous suggestion, the locus determining virulence to R10 was independent of that for R5/R8. The expression of virulence to three R-factors (Rl, R4 and R5/R8) was influenced by independent second loci. The presence of a dominant allele at the second locus inhibited avirulence. The expression of avirulence on R6 seemed to be influenced by modifier genes and environment in some isolates. Although the cultivars Mildura, Bourguignonne, Sucrine and Captain were originally thought to contain a single resistance factor, these data suggest that Sucrine carries R5/R8 in addition to R10 whilst Mildura may carry Rl in addition to R3. The stock of Bourguignonne appeared to be a mixture of resistance genotypes. The data add additional support to the suggestion that Capitan (Rll) may carry two resistance factors.