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Of 14 fungicides with different modes of action, cyproconazole and tolclofos-methyl were generally inhibitory both in vitro and in vivo against all tested isolates of five Rhizoctonia species belonging to the teleomorphs Thanatephorus cucumeris, Waitea circinata or Ceratobasidium cereale. Triadimenol and carboxin provided considerable variation in activity against different species and isolates, whereas prochloraz was ineffective against all isolates. Imazalil and fenarimol showed moderate control, whereas flusilazole, propiconazole, fenpropimorph and benomyl showed strong activity against R. zeae and R. oryzae, but were much less effective against R. sasakii, R. cerealis and R. solani. Benodanil and iprodione controlled all isolates of R. cerealis and R. solani, but were not very effective against R. zeae and R. oryzae. Pencycuron showed strong activity against R. sasakii and most R. solani isolates, moderate activity against R. zeae, and was ineffective against R. oryzae and R. cerealis.