Real-time PCR detection systems for Flavescence dorée and Bois noir phytoplasmas in grapevine: comparison with conventional PCR detection and application in diagnostics




A new real-time PCR detection system was developed for grapevine yellows (GY) using TaqMan minor groove binder probes and including two amplicons for group-specific detection of Flavescence dorée (FD) and Bois noir (BN) phytoplasmas, plus a universal phytoplasma amplicon. FD and BN amplicons were designed to amplify species-specific genomic DNA fragments and the universal amplicon to amplify the 16S ribosomal DNA region. Efficiency of PCR amplification, limit of detection, range of linearity and dynamic range were assessed for all three amplicons. The specificity of detection systems was tested on several other isolates of phytoplasmas and bacteria and on healthy field grapevine and insect samples. No cross-reactivity with other phytoplasma strains, plant or insect DNA was detected. The assay was compared with conventional PCR on more than 150 field grapevine, insect and field bindweed samples. Real-time PCR showed higher sensitivity as phytoplasmas were detected in several PCR-negative and in all PCR-positive samples. A data-mining analysis of results from both detection approaches also favoured real-time PCR over conventional PCR diagnostics. The developed procedure for detection of phytoplasmas in grapevine also included amplification of plant DNA co-extracted with phytoplasmic DNA, providing additional quality control for the DNA extraction and PCR amplification for each sample. The newly developed assay is a reliable, specific and sensitive method easily applicable to high-throughput diagnosis of GY.