Effects of resistance of Eremocitrus glauca and Microcitrus australis to viroid infection: replication, accumulation and long-distance movement of six citrus viroids

Authors

  • S. M. Bani Hashemian,

    1. Departamento de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigationes Agrarias, Apartado Oficial, 46113-Moncada, Valencia, Spain
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  • C. J. Barbosa,

    1. Departamento de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigationes Agrarias, Apartado Oficial, 46113-Moncada, Valencia, Spain
    2. Embrapa-Mandioca e Fruticultura, Rua Embrapa, CP 007, CEP 44380-000, Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil
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  • P. Serra,

    1. Departamento de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigationes Agrarias, Apartado Oficial, 46113-Moncada, Valencia, Spain
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  • N. Duran-Vila

    Corresponding author
    1. Departamento de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigationes Agrarias, Apartado Oficial, 46113-Moncada, Valencia, Spain
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E-mail: nduran@ivia.es

Abstract

In studies to identify genotypes resistant to infection with citrus viroids, Eremocitrus glauca and Microcitrus australis were selected because their evolution in their habitat in Australia and New Guinea may have led to the selection of unusual traits. The movement and accumulation of Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid, Citrus bent leaf viroid, Citrus dwarfing viroid, Citrus bark cracking viroid and Citrus viroid V (CVd-V) in self-rooted as well as in graft- propagated E. glauca and M. australis plants was assessed by northern hybridization, RT-PCR and by topworking to the sensitive selection 861-S1 of Etrog citron. In both plant species the inoculated viroids were undetectable unless these plants were grafted to a susceptible Citrus partner, the rough lemon rootstock and/or the topworked Etrog citron, which acted as viroid sources. The results obtained indicate that M. australis and in particular E. glauca are poor viroid hosts in which viroid replication/accumulation does not occur or is extremely inefficient. However, viroid downward and upward movement to grafted Citrus partners in which viroid replication and accumulation occurs efficiently was not impaired. Eremocitrus glauca and M. australis showed differences regarding their properties as viroid hosts, but for both species CEVd seemed to have the lowest affinity among the viroid species tested and CVd-V the highest. Even though E. glauca and M. australis do not appear to be truly resistant to viroid infection, they are interesting genotypes for further characterization of the mechanisms involved in viroid infection.

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