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Keywords:

  • dagger nematode;
  • grapevine;
  • nematode reproduction;
  • root-knot nematode;
  • Vitis spp

The host suitability of commercial Vitis rootstocks commonly used in Spain (161-49C, 41B, 1103P, 110R, 140Ru and SO4) to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica) and Xiphinema index, and damage caused by nematode infection were determined under controlled conditions. The three root-knot nematodes reproduced with a rate higher than one in all rootstocks, indicating that they are suitable hosts for these nematodes. Growth of rootstocks infected with the root-knot nematodes was less vigorous than that of nematode-uninfected controls in the majority of the rootstocks studied. Root infection resulted in moderate to severe root galling in all rootstocks. The shoot and main stem diameters appeared to be the most sensitive variables of damage caused by infection by Meloidogyne spp., with reduction rates from 36% and 53% in 161-49C to 57% and 66% in 140Ru, respectively. The shoot height was not significantly affected by the root-knot nematodes and the root fresh weight generally increased as a consequence of intensive galling. The nematode X. index caused significant root damage with a reproduction factor higher than one in all rootstocks. However, reproduction factor was significantly influenced by the rootstock and significantly decreased by about 12-fold (5·7 to 18·1-fold) with the increase in inoculum density from 100 to 1000 nematodes per plant. The root dry weight was reduced by X. index infections, and was the plant growth variable most affected by the nematode infection in all rootstocks at both inoculum densities. Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica and X. index, prevalent in many world vineyards, are all shown to have a damaging effect on the six tested rootstocks.