Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), a member of the genus Crinivirus (family Closteroviridae), has been present in Spain since at least 1997, causing annual epidemics of yellowing in protected tomato crops. In 1999, sweet pepper plants exhibiting stunting and symptoms of interveinal yellowing and mild upward curling in the leaves, were found to be infected with ToCV in a greenhouse heavily infested with the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in the province of Almería, southeastern Spain. This study investigated the prevalence of ToCV in tomato and pepper crops in the major growing areas of southeastern Spain (Murcia, Almería and Málaga provinces) over a 3-year period. In addition, an experimental system was developed for ToCV inoculation using B. tabaci as a vector, which allowed analysis of susceptibility of different pepper cultivars to the virus. The disease syndrome and yield losses induced by ToCV in pepper were also studied under experimental conditions, confirming severe yield reduction in infected plants.