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T helper 17(Th17) cell is a new subset of CD4+ T cells that produce a proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17). Th17 cells have recently been shown to play a critical role in many autoimmune diseases that had previously been thought to be Th1 dominant. Although Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) was thought to be a Th1-type disease, the contributions of Th17 cells to the pathogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of Th1/Th17 cell-associated factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and plasma from patients with HT by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the expression levels of Th1 cells-related T-bet and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA in PBMC from HT significantly decreased. However, the mRNA of Th17 coherent retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma t (RORγt) and IL-17 in patients with HT increased. In addition, a negative correlation between T-bet and RORγt mRNA expression was found in patients with HT, and the similar phenomena also appeared on the levels of mRNA and plasma concentration between IFN-γ and IL-17. It suggested that Th17 cells rather than Th1 cells predominated among patients suffering from HT, and Th17 cells might be involved in the pathogenesis of HT.