Avidity of Serogroup A Meningococcal IgG Antibodies after Immunization with Different Doses of a Tetravalent A/C/Y/W135 Polysaccharide Vaccine

Authors

  • G. K. Bårnes,

    1. Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
    2. Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
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  • L. M. Næss,

    1. Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
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  • E. Rosenqvist,

    1. Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
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  • P. J. Guerin,

    1. Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
    2. Epicentre, Paris, France
    3. Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, CCVTM, Oxford, UK
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  • D. A. Caugant,

    1. Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
    2. Department of International Health, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
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  • the Fractional Doses Vaccine Study Group


D. A. Caugant, Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. E-mail: dominique.caugant@fhi.no

Abstract

In the absence of an affordable conjugate meningococcal vaccine, mass vaccination campaigns with polysaccharide vaccines are the means to control meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. Facing global vaccine shortage, the use of reduced doses, which have been shown to be protective by serum bactericidal activity, can save many lives. In this study, we investigated the antibody responses and avidity of IgG antibodies evoked against the serogroup A capsule of Neisseria meningitidis by different doses of an A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide vaccine. Volunteers in Uganda were vaccinated with 1/10, 1/5 or a full dose (50 μg) and revaccinated with a full dose after 1 year. Specific IgG geometric mean concentrations and geometric mean avidity indices (GMAI) were determined by a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using thiocyanate as a chaotropic agent. After vaccination with 1/10 or 1/5 doses, the GMAI increased from 1 month to 1 year. One year following the initial dose, the GMAI levels were higher in the arm receiving reduced doses than for the arm receiving a full dose. Following the second full dose, avidity indices equalized at approximately the same level in the three arms. Although there are practical challenges to the use of reduced doses in the field, our findings suggest that reduced doses of polysaccharide vaccine are able to elicit antibodies of as good avidity against serogroup A polysaccharide as a full dose.

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