Enveloped Virus but not Bacteria Block IL-13 Responses in Human Cord Blood T Cells In Vitro

Authors

  • A. Svensson,

    1. Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Search for more papers by this author
  • I. Nordström,

    1. Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Search for more papers by this author
  • A. Rudin,

    1. Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Search for more papers by this author
  • T. Bergström,

    1. Department of Infectious Diseases, Section of Clinical Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Search for more papers by this author
  • K. Eriksson

    1. Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Search for more papers by this author

A. Svensson, Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Guldhedsgatan 10A, 413 46 Gothenburg, Sweden. E-mail: alexandra.svensson@microbio.gu.se

Abstract

Infections that occur early in life may have a beneficial effect on the immune system and thereby reduce the risk of allergen sensitization and/or allergic disease. It is not yet clear to what extent specific virus and/or bacteria can mediate this effect. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of virus and bacteria in CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine production in newborns. We compared the effects of five bacteria (Staphlococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium bifidus) and seven virus (adenovirus, coronavirus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, morbillivirus and poliovirus) on the Th1/Th2 cytokine production in mixed lymphocyte reactions using CD4+ T cells from cord blood cocultured with allogenic myeloid or plasmacytoid dendritic cells. When comparing the baseline cytokine production prior to microbial stimulation, we observed that cord plasmacytoid DC were stronger inducers of Th2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) compared with cord myeloid DC and to adult DC. When adding microbes to these cultures, bacteria and virus differed in two major respects; Firstly, all enveloped viruses, but none of the bacteria, blocked Th2 (IL-13) production by cord CD4+ cells. Secondly, all Gram-positive bacteria, but none of the virus, induced IL-12p40 responses, but the IL-12p40 responses did not affect Th1 cytokine production (IFN-γ). Instead, Th1 responses were correlated with the capacity to induce IFN-α secretion, which in cord cells were induced by S. aureus and influenza virus alone. These data imply that enveloped virus can deviate Th2 responses in human cord T cells.

Ancillary