Sand volcanoes have been found in three sedimentary associations in the Upper Carboniferous Bude Formation. In two of these associations they formed when the dewatering of fluidized sand beds, deposited from traction carpets, was temporarily inhibited by the deposition of overlying units. In the third association the volcanoes formed during the normal post-depositional compaction of fluidized, muddy, poorly sorted units deposited from subaqueous mudflows. While is seems that the tops of fluidized sand beds were characteristically sheared by a fairly powerful current immediately after being deposited, the waters above the recently deposited mudflow units were commonly stagnant, allowing sand volcano growth.