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ABSTRACT

Sediment ripples are caused by systematically-spaced transverse roller vortex systems in a moving fluid undergoing shear. With greater shear, these transverse rollers change over into longitudinal (helicoidal) vortices. This is the basic cause for the change from so-called ‘lower flow regime’ conditions to ‘upper flow regime’ conditions. All characteristics of these two regimes (sediment transport rate, bed form, sedimentary structures) are logically explained by attributing them to change in type of vortex system. For currents depositing sediments, there are three orders of magnitude of vortices, each order beginning with transverse rollers, passing through festoon to longitudinal rollers. A chaos zone (antidunes) ensues, followed by resumption of transverse rollers that are five to ten times as large as those in the previous order. Features of river sediments, marine sands, turbidites, desert sand dunes, sky, and stars are satisfactorily explained by this model.