Saltation threshold on Earth, Mars and Venus



New formulations valid for wide ranges of particle diameter and density and gas density are presented for prediction of saltation threshold speed for small particles. A low-air-density wind tunnel was used to extend the range of previous investigations and to separate the effects of Reynolds number and interparticle forces of cohesion. The new formulations are used to predict saltation threshold for atmospheric conditions on the surface of the Earth, Mars, and Venus.