Detailed lithostratigraphical, palynological and 14C analyses have served to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment during two main, mid-Holocene, regional phases of increased fluvial clay and sand deposition in the Rhine/Meuse deltaic plain. The investigated location lies in a broad area transitional to the upstream fluviatile and the downstream marine (lagoon/tidal flat) deposition zones. The palaeoenvironment appears to have been extensive, permanent open water intersected by the wooded natural levees of many small river channels. The term fluviolagoon is proposed for this typical environment, as illustrated here by three-dimensional oblique landscape drawings. A present-day example is found in the Magdalena river deltaic plain, Colombia.