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ABSTRACT

Models of sediment threshold by grain pivoting or sliding over underlying particles are examined in order to explore their application to evaluations of selective entrainment of gravel by flowing water. Of special interest is whether such process-based models provide satisfactory evaluations of flow competence and the movement of large clasts by floods. A detailed derivation is undertaken, focusing first on the fluid flow and forces at the particle level. The resulting threshold equation for the particle-level velocity is then modified to yield the mean entrainment stress for the flow as a whole. This approach is appropriate for considerations of selective entrainment of grains of varying sizes within a deposit, the sorting being due to their relative projection distances above the bed and the dependence of their pivoting angles on grain size and shape. The resulting threshold equations contain a number of coefficients (e.g. drag and lift) whose values are poorly known, but can be constrained by requiring agreement with the Shields curve for the threshold of grains in uniform deposits. If pivoting coefficients based on laboratory measurements with tetrahedral arrangements of particles are used in the models, smaller degrees of selective sorting are predicted than found in the field measurements of gravel entrainment. However, if reasonable modifications of those coefficients are made for expected field conditions, then the models yield good agreement with the data. Sliding models, where sorting is due entirely to projection distances of the grains above the bed, yield somewhat poorer agreement with the field data; however, the sliding models may have support from laboratory experiments on gravel entrainment in that the data and theoretical curves have similar concave trends. The existing measurements lack documentation of the mechanisms of grain movement, so it is not possible to conclusively determine the relative importance of grain pivoting versus sliding. In spite of such uncertainties, the results are encouraging and it is concluded that pivoting and sliding models for grain entrainment do have potential for field computations of selective entrainment and flow competence.