Storm-influenced siliciclastic and carbonate ramp deposits, the Lower Ordovician Dumugol Formation, South Korea



The Dumugol Formation (Lower Ordovician) in the southern part of the Baegunsan syncline, South Korea, contains mixed siliciclastic and carbonate ramp deposits. The ramp sediments were frequently influenced by storm events resulting in tempestites of sandstone-mudstone couplets, bioclastic grainstones to packstones, flat-pebble conglomerates, a skeletal lag layer and laminated calcisiltites. All tempestites are characterized by an erosive to sharp base, poor grading and a transitional upper boundary. The difference in lithology of tempestites appears to have been controlled by the nature of substrates and by proximality. For example, laminated calcisiltites have developed on the shallow carbonate ramp, flat-pebble conglomerates are closely associated with nodular limestones on shallow and deep ramps, and thin skeletal lag layers from fossiliferous argillaceous sediments formed in a basinal setting. The stratigraphic succession of the Dumugol Formation represents an initial transgression followed by a regression. The vertical facies change records the transition from a shallow siliciclastic ramp to a deep carbonate ramp, to a basin, shallowing to a deep carbonate ramp, and to a shallow carbonate ramp. Storm effects are mostly well preserved in shallow to deep ramp deposits.