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ABSTRACT

The Kleszczów Graben in central Poland was formed by late Oligocene to Middle Pleistocene extensional tectonics. During the Pleistocene it was infilled with a 200 m thick sequence of predominantly glacial sediments. Four distinct formations of Elsterian and Saalian age are identified, each containing 15–40 m of glaciolacustrine strata. The boundaries between formations are marked by erosional surfaces and, in part, by angular discordances caused by tectonism. Glaciolacustrine sedimentation was tectonically controlled: the thickness of the sequences in the graben are three to five times greater than outside the area of fault-controlled subsidence. Deposition in the proglacial lakes was controlled by differential subsidence rates within the basin: deep-lake facies (varved clays) were deposited in sub-basins with high subsidence rates and deltaic to shallow-water facies accumulated in areas of moderate subsidence or occasional uplift. These variations led to the development of a very complex, ‘mosaic’ of lateral facies relationships, suggesting that several sub-basins with differing subsidence rates were present. The Vertical successions show proximal-distal sequences typical of glacier-fed lakes that have limited contact with the ice sheet. However, gravity flow facies are very common, and occur both in the shallow- and deep-water deposits. These deposits are interpreted to have been formed adjacent to active fault scarps which bordered the lake basin. Although several distinct phases of glaciolacustrine sedimentation occurred during the history of trough infilling, the location of the areas of high subsidence varied through time.