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Keywords:

  • Concretion;
  • diagenesis;
  • Ordovician;
  • organogenic dolomite;
  • oxygen isotopes

Abstract

The estimated depth of formation of authigenic dolomite concretions in the Middle Ordovician Cloridorme Formation, Quebec, ranges from < 1 m to 150–200 m below sea floor (mbsf) (mostly between < 1 and 25 mbsf), based on centre-to-margin variations in minus-cement porosity (80–90% to 45–75%). Formation depths are > 350 mbsf (25–17% porosity) in the Lower Ordovician Levis Formation. Outward-decreasing δ13CVPDB values (10·2–0·8‰) suggest precipitation in the methane generation zone with an increasing contribution of light carbonate derived by advection from thermocatalytic reactions at depth. Anomalously low δ18OVPDB values (centre-to-margin variations of −0·4 to −7·5‰) give reasonable temperatures for the concretion centres only if the δ18O of Ordovician sea water was negative (−6‰) and the bottom water was warm (> 15 °C). The 3–5‰ lower values for the concretion margins compared with the centres can be explained if, in addition, volcanic-ash alteration, organic-matter decomposition and/or advection of 18O-depleted water lowered the δ18O of the pore water further by 2·0–4·0‰ during the first 25–200 m of burial. Reasonable growth temperatures for the margins of 17–20 °C are compatible with a lowering of the isotopic ratios by 1 to < 1·3‰ as a temperature effect. The systematic concentric isotope zonation of the concretions suggests that the well-ordered near-stoichiometric dolomite is a primary feature and not the result of recrystallization. Diagenetic dolomite beds of the Cloridorme Formation appear to have formed by coalescence of concretions, as shown by randomly sampled traverses that indicate formation at different subsurface depths. Growth of the Cloridorme dolomites was probably limited by calcium availability, at least 50% of which was derived from connate water, and the remainder by diffusion from sea water. Dolomite precipitation was favoured over calcite by very high sedimentation rates, the abundance of marine organic matter in the host sediment and a correspondingly thin sulphate reduction zone. Deep-seated concretion growth in the Levis Formation required either internal sources for the participating ions (carbonate dissolution event) or porewater advection along faults.