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Columnar calcites as testimony of diagenetic overprinting at the boundary between Upper Tournaisian dolomites and limestones (Belgium): multiple origins for apparently similar features



In topographic flat areas, sedimentary settings may vary from one outcrop to another. In these settings, calcite precipitates may yield macroscopically similar columnar features, although they are products of different sedimentary or diagenetic processes. Three columnar calcite crystal fabrics, i.e. rosettes, palisade crusts and macro-columnar crystal fans, have been differentiated near and at the contact between Upper Tournaisian dolomites and limestones along the southern margin of the Brabant-Wales Palaeohigh. Their petrographic characteristics, and geochemical and fluid inclusion data provide information on the (dia)genetic processes involved. Rosettes composed of non-luminescent columnar calcite crystal fans (1–5 cm in diameter) developed on top of one another, forming discrete horizons in repetitive sedimentary cycles. The cycles consist of three horizons: (I) a basal horizon with fragments from the underlying horizon, (II) a micrite/microspar horizon with incipient glaebules, (III) an upper horizon consisting of calcite rosettes, with desiccation features. The petrographical features and δ18O signatures of −10·0 to −5·5‰ and δ13C values of −5·5 to −3·2‰ support either evaporative growth, an evaporative pedogenic origin, or overprinting of marine precipitates. Palisade crusts, composed of a few to 10 mm long non-luminescent calcite crystals, coat palaeokarst cavities. Successive palisade growth-stages occur which are separated by thin laminae of micrite or detrital quartz, displaying a geopetal arrangement. Palisade crusts are interpreted as intra-Mississippian speleothems. This interpretation is supported by their petrographic characteristics and isotopic signature (δ18O = −8·7 to −6·5‰ and δ13C = −4·8 to −2·5‰). Macro-columnar crystals, 1–50 cm long, developed mainly perpendicular to cavity walls and dolomite clasts. Crystal growth stages in the macro-columnar crystals are missing. δ18O values vary between −16·4 and −6·8‰ and δ13C values between −5·2 and −0·9‰. These features possibly support a late diagenetic high temperature precipitation in relation to hydrothermal karstification.