Integration of outcrop and borehole image logs for high-resolution facies interpretation: example from a fluvial fan in the Ebro Basin, Spain



Electrical borehole image logs yield high-resolution information about variations in micro-resistivity along the borehole wall. To interpret these variations in terms of sedimentary structures and lithofacies types, calibration with real rock is needed. Normally, the only real rock available is core, and this only provides one-dimensional information. In this paper, the interpretation of fluvial facies types from borehole image logs was established by direct comparison with outcrops. Four fluvial facies associations were established in an outcrop study of a low net-to-gross fluvial succession: (i) meandering rivers, (ii) braided rivers, (iii) crevasse deltas, and (iv) crevasse splays. The lithofacies characteristics and palaeocurrent distributions of each fluvial facies association were established. Two 200 m deep wells were drilled behind the cliff face outcrops. One well was cored to a depth of 150 m and borehole image logs were recorded in both wells. The wells were correlated with the outcrop. The borehole image logs were analysed by their vertical colour succession and the dipmeter pattern. Image log facies were established, and these were interpreted in terms of the fluvial facies associations encountered in the corresponding outcrops. The study of borehole image logs yields a set of diagnostic criteria for a detailed fluvial facies interpretation and the establishment of depositional trends, and thus provides a powerful tool for the direct interpretation of fluvial facies in a reservoir setting.