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RETRACTION: Numerical simulation of a wind-sand flow under different conditions of atmospheric stability


  • Following discussion and agreement between the Chief Editor, an Associate Editor and the author, it was decided that this paper should be retracted. The reason for the retraction is as follows. Immediately after acceptance of this paper for publication, the author submitted a further manuscript that considered additional parameters not addressed in the retracted paper and also noted shortcomings in the numerical model. The Editorial policy of the journal is to publish complete treatments of problems (as far as these are available) rather than a series of journal papers that demonstrate progressive, rapid but piecemeal progress in scientific understanding – in this case in model formulation.


A theoretical model for wind-sand flow is developed by considering the coupling between wind flow and sand particle motion, the latter subject to the Magnus effect, under different atmospheric stability conditions. Using this model, the characteristics of the wind-sand flow are discussed in detail. The results show that the atmospheric stability and the Magnus effect both have a strong influence on wind profiles and on the trajectories of sand particles. This approach produces results with characteristics that differ from those previously reported; the latter only applying to atmospheric conditions of neutral stability. The saltating sand reaches a greater height under non-neutral stability than under neutral stability, while the maximum horizontal distance is greater under unstable conditions and is smaller under stable conditions than under conditions of neutral stability.

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