• Grain/bed collision;
  • high-speed digital camera;
  • image processing;
  • saltation;
  • statistical analysis


A high-speed digital camera was employed to record the sand grain/bed collision process. With image processing and a statistical method, a series of parameters of the collision process were obtained. The results show that the collision process of a grain with rebounding can be represented by two parameters: the kinetic energy restitution coefficient and the collision angle. Both parameters satisfy a normal distribution, and they are dependent on one another. With an increase of the collision angle, the distribution of the kinetic energy restitution gradually reduces from a broad to a narrow range with low values. The percentage of vertical velocity restitution coefficients greater than 1 can reach 70% or more, which ensures that the settling time of the sand grains in the air increases and that they receive more energy from the air to progress the saltation movement.