• Bioherm;
  • microbialite;
  • morphology;
  • Neoarchean;
  • oxygen;
  • stromatolite


The Neoarchean Carawine Formation, Hamersley Group, Western Australia is a carbonate ramp that preserves diverse microbial structures which are characteristic of specific depositional environments. These distinctive structures are distributed in five shallow subtidal and two deeper-water facies in the Oakover area of the Carawine Formation. The shallow subtidal facies are composed of biohermal and bedded stromatolites, centimetre-scale ridge-shaped microbialites and wavy-laminated microbialites. The deeper-water facies are composed of fenestrate microbialites, planar laminated dolostone and dolostone with rolled-up microbial laminae. Microbialites in the Carawine Formation lie within a continuum of Archean to Proterozoic microbial facies. Some shallow-water microbial facies in the Carawine Formation are similar to Proterozoic facies, such as large bioherms internally composed of a variety of stromatolite morphologies. In contrast, fenestrate microbialites grew in quiet subtidal environments and are common in Archean rocks but have not been documented in similar Proterozoic environments. The similarity of shallow-water facies across the Archean–Proterozoic transition, before and after the oxidation of the atmosphere and surface oceans, indicates that stromatolite growth in shallow subtidal environments was not strongly affected by the chemical changes associated with oxidation of the oceans or by biological responses to those chemical changes. Rather, stromatolite morphology was controlled mostly by the physical environment and the corresponding biological responses to that environment. In contrast, the absence of fenestrate microbialites from Proterozoic deep subtidal environments suggests that the morphology of deep subtidal microbial structures was influenced by chemical or biological changes that occurred in association with oxidation of the surface oceans.