• Backset beds;
  • cross-bedding;
  • flume;
  • hydraulic jump;
  • submerged wall jet;
  • unit bar


This paper presents results from two flume runs of an ongoing series examining flow structure, sediment transport and deposition in hydraulic jumps. It concludes in the presentation of a model for the development of sedimentary architecture, considered characteristic of a hydraulic jump over a non-eroding bed. In Run 1, a hydraulic jump was formed in sediment-free water over the solid plane sloping flume floor. Ultrasonic Doppler velocity profilers recorded the flow structure within the hydraulic jump in fine detail. Run 2 had identical initial flow conditions and a near-steady addition of sand, which formed beds with two distinct characteristics: a laterally extensive, basal, wedge-shaped massive sand bed overlain by cross-laminated sand beds. Each cross-laminated bed recorded the initiation and growth of a single surface feature, here defined as a hydraulic-jump unit bar. A small massive sand mound formed on the flume floor and grew upstream and downstream without migrating to form a unit bar. In the upstream portion of the unit bar, sand finer than the bulk load formed a set of laminae dipping upstream. This set passed downstream through the small volume of massive sand into a foreset, which was initially relatively coarse-grained and became finer-grained downstream. This downstream-fining coincided with cessation of the growth of the upstream-dipping cross-set. At intervals, a new bed feature developed above and upstream of the preceding hydraulic-jump unit bar and grew in the same way, with the foreset climbing the older unit bar. The composite architecture of the superimposed unit bars formed a fanning, climbing coset above the massive wedge, defined as one unit: a hydraulic-jump bar complex.