Measurement of sand creep on a flat sand bed using a high-speed digital camera



In this study, a novel method for measuring sand creep along a flat bed was developed. Specifically, a high-speed digital camera was employed to record the sand creep movement. With an unsigned image subtraction, a new image queue could be formed from the original experimental images. The particle tracking was then calculated, after which the velocity and trajectory of the creep of sand grains was obtained. In addition, the creep fluxes of the different sand samples could also be calculated based on the velocities of the creep grains.