• Beach accretion;
  • berms;
  • clast shapes;
  • cross-strata;
  • cusps;
  • selection pavements;
  • tidal range


The height of accretionary gravel beaches, determined by the vertical distance between the large sphere zone at the seaward margin and the large disc zone at the landward margin, is determined mainly by tidal range. As the beach builds seaward, this height translates into thickness and so the complete thickness of gravel beach accumulations is a good indicator, in the geological record, of tidal range. Beaches with a small tidal range have the zone between the large discs and the large spheres compressed and sometimes steepened. These beaches are characterized mainly by cusps and berms, both of which yield steeply dipping, seaward building, cross-strata. Beaches built by large, persistent waves generally have a steep profile, whereas those with small wave height appear to have a shallow profile. Cusps generally have extremely well-sorted gravels, often in an openwork fabric and with a landward crown of coarse gravel that may grade seaward into shape-sorted, gently dipping gravels. Berms, which may extend for hundreds of metres along the coast, comprise, in section, very well-sorted cross-stratified gravels that may intermittently build seaward for a distance >15 m. Extensive selection pavements typify beaches with a high tidal range and comprise sheets of gravel which are well-sorted and dip at comparatively low angles towards the sea. These selection pavements form beds that, in section, can be >50 m in seaward length; they grow from clasts, supplied to them from swash or backwash, and which are selected by the fabric of the existing sheet. In some cases, the selection pavements can be very mature having only a specific clast shape and size remaining. Total preservation of the beach sequence in the geological record is more likely to take place in areas of rapid deposition of sediments, such as the marine fringes to a fan delta.