Abstract. The species of Gymnophora Macquart of the Holarctic Region are revised and twelve species, including four new to science, are recognized. A phylogenetic hypothesis is presented and some speculations are made on the geographic history of the genus. The Gymnophora carina-group containing G. carina new species and G.mul-tipinnacula new species, is considered to be the sister group to the Gymnophora quartomollis-group of species. The G.quartomollis-gionp consists of the G.nigripennis-subgroup, containing G.fastigiorum Schmitz, G.nigripennis Schmitz and G.quartomollis Schmitz, and the G.arcwata-subgroup of species, containing G.arcuata (Meigen), G.integrate Schmitz, G.luteiventris Schmitz, G.subarcuata Schmitz, G.healeyae Disney, G.marshalli new species and G.talea new species. No male specimens of G.lapidicola or verrucata were located, hence the phylogenetic relationships of these species are not hypothesized. Male and female terminalia and other taxonomically useful characters are illustrated, and the larva of G.luteiventris is described, the first published description of the larva of this genus.