Abstract. The virtually unknown monotypic genus Neophonus Fauvel has been collected in several localities in south-central Chile; it was previously known only from the type locality in Argentina. Field observations of the adults on forest foliage and study of their gut contents suggest that they are mycophagous and eat primarily foliicolous fungi, a habit previously unknown in Staphylinidae. Their mouthparts and tarsi show morphological specializations apparently correlated with these habits. Larvae remain unknown. The phylogenetic relationships of the genus within the omaliine-group of Staphylinidae sensu lato are discussed.