Abstract The mealybug genus Rastrococcus, comprising twenty-two species, is revised. A key is presented together with detailed descriptions and illustrations of all the included species. The genus is distributed throughout Australasia and southern Asia, and precise locality and hostplant data are listed. New taxa are R.expeditionis sp.n., R.jabadiu sp.n., R.monachus sp.n., R.rubellus sp.n., R.taprobanicus sp.n. and R.viridarii sp.n. In addition, Lankacoccus gen.n. is erected for Phenacoccus ornatus Green, formerly included in Rastrococcus. New synonymies proposed are P. ballardi Newstead with R.mangiferae (Green) and R.cappariae Avasthi & Shafee with R. iceryoides (Green). Lectotypes are designated for P.ornatus, P.iceryoides, P. ballardi, Dactylopius (Pseudococcus) obtusus Newstead and Pseudococcus mangiferae.