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Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data

Authors

  • ANDREW D. WARREN,

    Corresponding author
    1. McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.
    2. Museo de Zoología, Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico
      Andrew D. Warren, McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, PO Box 112710, Gainesville, FL 32611-2710, U.S.A. E-mail: hesperioidea@yahoo.com
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  • JOSHUA R. OGAWA,

    1. Department of Biology, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, U.S.A.
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  • ANDREW V. Z. BROWER

    1. Department of Biology, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, U.S.A.
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Andrew D. Warren, McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, PO Box 112710, Gainesville, FL 32611-2710, U.S.A. E-mail: hesperioidea@yahoo.com

Abstract

Abstract We propose a revised higher classification for the genera of Hesperiidae (skipper butterflies) of the world. We have augmented our published DNA data matrix with 49 morphological characters in order to infer relationships for taxa not sampled in the molecular study. We use the results of a combined analysis to identify morphological synapomorphies of the suprageneric clades of Hesperiidae, and to hypothesize a phylogenetic classification of the world’s genera of Hesperiidae, the first of its kind for this diverse group. Monophyly of the family Hesperiidae is strongly supported, as are some of the traditionally recognized subfamilies. The results presented here largely corroborate those of our molecular study, but differ in several details. The Australian endemic Euschemon rafflesia is given subfamily status, as is Eudaminae. We recognize seven subfamilies of Hesperiidae: Coeliadinae, Euschemoninae (confirmed status), Eudaminae (new status), Pyrginae, Heteropterinae (confirmed status), Trapezitinae and Hesperiinae. We treat Pyrrhopygini, Tagiadini, Celaenorrhinini, Carcharodini, Achlyodidini, Erynnini and Pyrgini as tribes of Pyrginae. Circumscriptions of Achlyodidini and Pyrgini require further elucidation. Tribes of Hesperiinae include Aeromachini, Baorini, Taractrocerini, Thymelicini, Calpodini (reinstated status), Anthoptini (new tribe), Moncini and Hesperiini. The tribal placement of many Old World hesperiine genera remains ambiguous.

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