The cicada genus Psithyristria Stål (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), endemic to Luzon, the Philippines, is reviewed, and its higher taxonomic affiliations are determined using morphology and molecular phylogenetics. Seven new Psithyristria species, P. grandis, sp.n., P. albiterminalis, sp.n., P. incredibilis, sp.n., P. paraspecularis, sp.n., P. peculiaris, sp.n., P. moderabilis, sp.n. and P. genesis, sp.n., are described. A key to the 12 known species is provided. The molecular phylogenetic analyses of Psithyristria and putatively related taxa showed some unexpected generic relationships, leading to changes in higher taxonomic placement for a number of Asian cicada genera. Psithyristria falls within the tribe Cicadini Latreille, 1802, and the tribe Psithyristriini Distant, 1905 syn.n. is therefore synonymized with Cicadini. The subtribe Psithyristriina Distant, 1905 stat.n. is recognized within Cicadini and defined for the genera Psithyristria, transferred from Psithyristriini, and Basa Distant, Pomponia Stål and Semia Matsumura, transferred from Cicadina, synonymizing Pomponiina Kato, 1932syn.n. with Psithyristriina. The Cicadini subtribe Leptopsaltriina Moulton, 1923 is redefined to include the genera Terpnosia Distant, Euterpnosia Matsumura, Leptosemia Matsumura, Neocicada Kato, Puranoides Moulton, Leptopsaltria Stål, Tanna Distant, Purana Distant, Formosemia Matsumura, Maua Distant, Nabalua Moulton, Taiwanosemia Matsumura, Gudaba Distant and Calcagninus Distant, synonymizing Terpnosiina Kato, 1932syn.n. The tribe Cicadatrini Distant, 1905 is recognized and redefined to include the genera Cicadatra Kolenati, Psalmocharias Kirkaldy, Mogannia Amyot & Audinet-Serville, Nipponosemia Kato and Emathia Stål, synonymizing Moganniini Distant, 1905 syn.n. The nine Psithyristria species included in the molecular analyses have an uncorrected mitochondrial genetic distance of 2–9%, and most species appear to be related through a single radiation event that occurred approximately 5–10 Ma. No phylogenetic structure was found in two unusually divergent characters, the forewing venation and the shape of the uncal lobes. Psithyristria is found in the northern Luzon mountains and is closely related to Semia of Taiwan and eastern China, Pomponia of east Asia and the Indonesian/Malaysian islands, and probably most closely to Basa of India. Psithyristria may be a cicadid example of a small number of Philippine organisms that trace their ancestry directly back to the temperate Asian mainland, rather than through the island chains to the south of the country.