On the head morphology of Grylloblattodea (Insecta) and the systematic position of the order, with a new nomenclature for the head muscles of Dicondylia

Authors

  • BENJAMIN WIPFLER,

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    1. Entomology Group, Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Jena, Germany
    • Benjamin Wipfler, Entomology Group, Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Erbertstraße 1, 07743 Jena, Germany. E-mail: bwipfle@gwdg.de

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  • RYUICHIRO MACHIDA,

    1. Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan
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  • BERND MÜLLER,

    1. Fachgruppe VIII.3 Radiologische Verfahren, Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung, Berlin, Germany
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  • ROLF G. BEUTEL

    1. Entomology Group, Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Jena, Germany
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Abstract

External and internal head structures of adults of Galloisiana yuasai (Grylloblattodea) are described. The results are compared with conditions found in representatives of other lower neopteran lineages, notably in Austrophasma and Karoophasma (both Mantophasmatodea). Sutures and ridges of the head capsule are discussed. A new nomenclature for head muscles is presented for the entire Dicondylia (= Zygentoma + Pterygota). Galloisiana (like its sister taxon Grylloblatta) is mostly characterized by plesiomorphic features, such as the largely unspecialized orthopteroid mouthparts, the multisegmented filiform antennae, the presence of trabeculae tentorii, the absence of muscles associated with the antennal ampullae, the presence of musculus stipitalis transversalis (0mx11) and the presence of musculus tentoriofrontalis anterior (0te2). Autapomorphies of Grylloblattodea are: (i) compound eyes composed of only 60 ommatidia or less; (ii) a lacinia with a proximal tooth; (iii) a rounded submentum; (iv) loss of musculus craniohypopharyngealis (0hy3); and (v) loss of musculus labroepipharyngealis (0lb5). The phylogenetic evaluation of 104 characters of the head yields a branching pattern with Grylloblattodea as a sister group of Mantophasmatodea in clade Xenonomia. Putative synapomorphies of both taxa are: (i) a distinct angle (more than 60°) between the submentum and the mentum; (ii) posteriorly oriented labial palpi; (iii) a flat and lobe-like hypopharynx with a suspensorium far ventrad of the anatomical mouth opening; (iv) loss of musculus tentorioparaglossalis (0la6); and (v) a connection between the antennal ampulla and the supraoesophageal ganglion containing nuclei. Xenonomia is placed in a clade with the two dictyopteran terminals. Another monophyletic group is Embioptera + Phasmatodea. Most branches of the single tree obtained in our analysis are weakly supported. The results clearly show that more data and a much broader taxon sampling are required to clarify the phylogenetic interrelationships of the lower neopteran orders. However, our results narrow down the spectrum of possible solutions, and represent a starting point for future phylogenetic analyses, with an extensive concatenated dataset.

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