Phylogenetic relationships among the winged orders of Polyneoptera [Blattodea, Dermaptera, Embiodea (=Embioptera), Isoptera, Mantodea, Orthoptera, Phasmatodea, Plecoptera and Zoraptera] were estimated based on morphological data selected from the hindwing base structure. Cladistic analyses were carried out using hindwing base data alone and in combination with other, more general, morphological data. Both datasets resulted in similar trees and recovered the monophyly of Polyneoptera. Deepest phylogenetic relationships among the polyneopteran orders were not confidently estimated, but the monophyly of Mystroptera (= Embiodea + Zoraptera), Orthopterida (= Orthoptera + Phasmatodea) and Dictyoptera (= Blattodea + Mantodea + Isoptera) was supported consistently. In contrast, placements of Plecoptera and Dermaptera were unstable, although independent analysis of the wing base data supported their sister-group relationship with two nonhomoplasious synapomorphies (unique conditions in the ventral basisubcostale, and in the articulation between the antemedian notal wing process and first axillary sclerite). Results from the combined wing base plus general morphology data were consistent, even if the wingless orders Grylloblattodea and Mantophasmatodea were included in the analysis. Generally, trees obtained from the present analyses were concordant with the results from other morphological and molecular analyses, but Isoptera were placed inappropriately to be the sister of Blattodea + Mantodea by the inclusion of the wing base data, probably as a result of morphological regressions of the order.