A nuclear-encoded sigma factor, Arabidopsis SIG6, recognizes sigma-70 type chloroplast promoters and regulates early chloroplast development in cotyledons


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Eubacterial-type multi-subunit plastid RNA polymerase (PEP) is responsible for the principal transcription activity in chloroplasts. PEP is composed of plastid-encoded core subunits and one of multiple nuclear-encoded sigma factors that confer promoter specificity on PEP. Thus, the replacement of sigma factors associated with PEP has been assumed to be a major mechanism for the switching of transcription patterns during chloroplast development. The null mutant (sig6-1) of plastid sigma factor gene AtSIG6 exhibited a cotyledon-specific pale green phenotype. Light-dependent chloroplast development was significantly delayed in the sig6-1 mutant. Genetic complementation of the mutant phenotype by the AtSIG6 cDNA demonstrated that AtSIG6 plays a key role in light-dependent chloroplast development. Northern and array-based global analyses for plastid transcripts revealed that the transcript levels of most PEP-dependent genes were greatly reduced in the sig6-1 mutant, but that the accumulation of nuclear-encoded RNA polymerase (NEP)-dependent transcripts generally increased. As the PEP α subunit and PEP-dependent trnV accumulated at normal levels in the sig6-1 mutant, the AtSIG6 knockout mutant probably retained functional PEP, and the transcriptional defects are likely to have been directly caused by AtSIG6 deficiency. Most of the AtSIG6-dependent genes are preceded by σ70-type promoters comprised of conserved −35/−10 elements. Thus, AtSIG6 may act as a major general sigma factor in chloroplasts during early plant development. On the other hand, the mutant phenotype was restored in older seedlings. Arabidopsis probably contains another late general sigma factor, the promoter specificity of which widely overlaps with that of AtSIG6.