The Ms;CDKC;1 kinase is structurally similar to those cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that are not involved directly in cell cycle regulation. The presence of a PITAIRE motif in Ms;CDKC;1 suggests that it interacts with cyclins different from known PSTAIRE/PPTALRE kinase regulatory subunits. Here we demonstrate that a Medicago CYCLINT (CYCT) protein is a specific interactor of Ms;CDKC;1 and the interaction between these two proteins gives rise to an active kinase complex that localizes to the nucleus and phosphorylates the carboxy-terminal YSPTSPS heptapeptide repeat domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II in vitro. Mutation of Ser to Ala at position 5 within the heptapeptide repeat abolishes substrate phosphorylation by the Ms;CDKC;1 kinase complex. Furthermore, our data show that addition of the Medicago CDKC;1-CYCT;1 heterodimer completely restored the transcriptional activity of a HeLa nuclear extract depleted of endogeneous CDK9 kinase complexes. Together, these results indicate that the Medicago CDKC;1-CYCT;1 complex is a positive regulator of transcription in plants and has a role similar to the CDK9/cyclin T complex of human positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb.