Iron acquisition of graminaceous plants is characterized by the synthesis and secretion of the iron-chelating phytosiderophore, mugineic acid (MA), and by a specific uptake system for iron(III)–phytosiderophore complexes. We identified a gene specifically encoding an iron–phytosiderophore transporter (HvYS1) in barley, which is the most tolerant species to iron deficiency among graminaceous plants. HvYS1 was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 678 amino acids and to have 72.7% identity with ZmYS1, a first protein identified as an iron(III)–phytosiderophore transporter in maize. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the HvYS1 gene was mainly expressed in the roots, and its expression was enhanced under iron deficiency. In situ hybridization analysis of iron-deficient barley roots revealed that the mRNA of HvYS1 was localized in epidermal root cells. Furthermore, immunohistological staining with anti-HvYS1 polyclonal antibody showed the same localization as the mRNA. HvYS1 functionally complemented yeast strains defective in iron uptake on media containing iron(III)–MA, but not iron–nicotianamine (NA). Expression of HvYS1 in Xenopus oocytes showed strict specificity for both metals and ligands: HvYS1 transports only iron(III) chelated with phytosiderophore. The localization and substrate specificity of HvYS1 is different from those of ZmYS1, indicating that HvYS1 is a specific transporter for iron(III)–phytosiderophore involved in primary iron acquisition from soil in barley roots.