Ethylene-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis occurs via AtrbohF-mediated hydrogen peroxide synthesis

Authors

  • Radhika Desikan,

    1. Centre for Research in Plant Science, Genomics Research Institute, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK,
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  • Kathryn Last,

    1. Centre for Research in Plant Science, Genomics Research Institute, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK,
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  • Rhian Harrett-Williams,

    1. Centre for Research in Plant Science, Genomics Research Institute, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK,
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  • Cecilia Tagliavia,

    1. Department of Biological Sciences, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, UK,
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  • Klaus Harter,

    1. Department of Plant Physiology, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, 72076 Tübingen, Germany, and
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  • Richard Hooley,

    1. Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, 3 South, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
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  • John T. Hancock,

    1. Centre for Research in Plant Science, Genomics Research Institute, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK,
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  • Steven J. Neill

    Corresponding author
    1. Centre for Research in Plant Science, Genomics Research Institute, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK,
      For correspondence(fax +44 117 3282132; e-mail Steven.Neill@uwe.ac.uk).
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For correspondence(fax +44 117 3282132; e-mail Steven.Neill@uwe.ac.uk).

Summary

Ethylene is a plant hormone that regulates many aspects of growth and development. Despite the well-known association between ethylene and stress signalling, its effects on stomatal movements are largely unexplored. Here, genetic and physiological data are provided that position ethylene into the Arabidopsis guard cell signalling network, and demonstrate a functional link between ethylene and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In wild-type leaves, ethylene induces stomatal closure that is dependent on H2O2 production in guard cells, generated by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) oxidase AtrbohF. Ethylene-induced closure is inhibited by the ethylene antagonists 1-MCP and silver. The ethylene receptor mutants etr1–1 and etr1–3 are insensitive to ethylene in terms of stomatal closure and H2O2 production. Stomata of the ethylene signalling ein2–1 and arr2 mutants do not close in response to either ethylene or H2O2 but do generate H2O2 following ethylene challenge. Thus, the data indicate that ethylene and H2O2 signalling in guard cells are mediated by ETR1 via EIN2 and ARR2-dependent pathway(s), and identify AtrbohF as a key mediator of stomatal responses to ethylene.

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