Regulation of arbuscular mycorrhization by apoplastic invertases: enhanced invertase activity in the leaf apoplast affects the symbiotic interaction
Article first published online: 23 MAY 2007
The Plant Journal
Volume 51, Issue 3, pages 390–405, August 2007
How to Cite
Schaarschmidt, S., Kopka, J., Ludwig-Müller, J. and Hause, B. (2007), Regulation of arbuscular mycorrhization by apoplastic invertases: enhanced invertase activity in the leaf apoplast affects the symbiotic interaction. The Plant Journal, 51: 390–405. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2007.03150.x
- Issue published online: 5 JUN 2007
- Article first published online: 23 MAY 2007
- Received 8 December 2006; revised 26 February 2007; accepted 23 March 2007.
- abscisic acid;
- apoplastic invertase;
- arbuscular mycorrhiza;
- defense response;
- metabolite profiling;
- Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)
The effect of constitutive invertase overexpression on the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is shown. The analysis of the enhanced potential for sucrose cleavage was performed with a heterozygous line of Nicotiana tabacum 35S::cwINV expressing a chimeric gene encoding apoplast-located yeast-derived invertase with the CaMV35S promoter. Despite the 35S promoter, roots of the transgenic plants showed no or only minor effects on invertase activity whereas the activity in leaves was increased at different levels. Plants with strongly elevated leaf invertase activity, which exhibited a strong accumulation of hexoses in source leaves, showed pronounced phenotypical effects like stunted growth and chlorosis, and an undersupply of the root with carbon. Moreover, transcripts of PR (pathogenesis related) genes accumulated in the leaves. In these plants, mycorrhization was reduced. Surprisingly, plants with slightly increased leaf invertase activity showed a stimulation of mycorrhization, particularly 3 weeks after inoculation. Compared with wild-type, a higher degree of mycorrhization accompanied by a higher density of all fungal structures and a higher level of Glomus intraradices-specific rRNA was detected. Those transgenic plants showed no accumulation of hexoses in the source leaves, minor phenotypical effects and no increased PR gene transcript accumulation. The roots had even lower levels of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid and scopolin), amines (such as tyramine, dopamine, octopamine and nicotine) and some amino acids (including 5-amino-valeric acid and 4-amino-butyric acid), as well as an increased abscisic acid content compared with wild-type. Minor metabolic changes were found in the leaves of these plants. The changes in metabolism and defense status of the plant and their putative role in the formation of an AM symbiosis are discussed.