Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites involved in pathogen and insect defense of cruciferous plants. Although seeds and vegetative tissue often have very different glucosinolate profiles, few genetic factors that determine seed glucosinolate accumulation have been identified. An HPLC-based screen of 5500 mutagenized Arabidopsis thaliana lines produced 33 glucosinolate mutants, of which 21 have seed-specific changes. Five of these mutant lines, representing three genetic loci, are compromised in the biosynthesis of benzoyloxyglucosinolates, which are only found in seeds and young seedlings of A. thaliana. Genetic mapping and analysis of T-DNA insertions in candidate genes identified BZO1 (At1g65880), which encodes an enzyme with benzoyl-CoA ligase activity, as being required for the accumulation of benzoyloxyglucosinolates. Long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates are elevated in bzo1 mutants, suggesting substrate competition for the common short-chain aliphatic glucosinolate precursors. Whereas bzo1 mutations have seed-specific effects on benzoyloxyglucosinolate accumulation, the relative abundance of 3-benzoyloxypropyl- and 4-benzoyloxybutylglucosinolates depends on the maternal genotype.