The NaGSL1 gene has been proposed to encode the callose synthase (CalS) enzyme from Nicotiana alata pollen tubes based on its similarity to fungal 1,3-β-glucan synthases and its high expression in pollen and pollen tubes. We have used a biochemical approach to link the NaGSL1 protein with CalS enzymic activity. The CalS enzyme from N. alata pollen tubes was enriched over 100-fold using membrane fractionation and product entrapment. A 220 kDa polypeptide, the correct molecular weight to be NaGSL1, was specifically detected by anti-GSL antibodies, was specifically enriched with CalS activity, and was the most abundant polypeptide in the CalS-enriched fraction. This polypeptide was positively identified as NaGSL1 using both MALDI-TOF MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides. Other low-abundance polypeptides in the CalS-enriched fractions were identified by MALDI-TOF MS as deriving from a 103 kDa plasma membrane H+-ATPase and a 60 kDa β-subunit of mitochondrial ATPase, both of which were deduced to be contaminants in the product-entrapped material. These analyses thus suggest that NaGSL1 is required for CalS activity, although other smaller (<30 kDa) or low-abundance proteins could also be involved.