Svetlana Orashakova and Matthias Lange have contributed equally to this manuscript.
The CRABS CLAW ortholog from California poppy (Eschscholzia californica, Papaveraceae), EcCRC, is involved in floral meristem termination, gynoecium differentiation and ovule initiation
Article first published online: 25 FEB 2009
© 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
The Plant Journal
Volume 58, Issue 4, pages 682–693, May 2009
How to Cite
Orashakova, S., Lange, M., Lange, S., Wege, S. and Becker, A. (2009), The CRABS CLAW ortholog from California poppy (Eschscholzia californica, Papaveraceae), EcCRC, is involved in floral meristem termination, gynoecium differentiation and ovule initiation. The Plant Journal, 58: 682–693. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2009.03807.x
- Issue published online: 14 MAY 2009
- Article first published online: 25 FEB 2009
- Received 3 December 2008; revised 12 January 2009; accepted 16 January 2009; published online 25 February 2009.
- evolutionary developmental genetics;
- carpel development;
- YABBY transcription factor;
- CRABS CLAW;
- Eschscholzia californica;
- California poppy
The Arabidopsis transcription factor CRABS CLAW (CRC) is a major determinant of carpel growth and fusion, and, in concert with other redundantly acting genes, of floral meristem termination. Its rice ortholog, however, has additional functions in specifying carpel organ identity. We were interested in understanding the history of gene function modulation of CRC-like genes during angiosperm evolution. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of EcCRC, the Californica poppy (Eschscholzia californica) CRC ortholog. The downregulation of EcCRC by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) produces additional organ whorls that develop exclusively into gynoecia, resulting in a reiteration of the fourth whorl. Additionally, defects in carpel polarity and ovule initiation are apparent, and the observed phenotype is restricted to the gynoecium. Our results further show that the history of CRC-like genes during angiosperm evolution is characterized by gains of function, independent of duplication processes in this gene subfamily. Moreover, our data indicate that the ancestral angiosperm CRC-like gene was involved in floral meristem termination and the promotion of abaxial cell fate in the gynoecium, and that in the lineage leading to Arabidopsis, additional genes have been recruited to adopt some of these functions, resulting in a high degree of redundancy.