These authors contributed equally to this work.
Targeted manipulation of leaf form via local growth repression
Article first published online: 1 APR 2011
© 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
The Plant Journal
Volume 66, Issue 6, pages 941–952, June 2011
How to Cite
Malinowski, R., Kasprzewska, A. and Fleming, A. J. (2011), Targeted manipulation of leaf form via local growth repression. The Plant Journal, 66: 941–952. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04559.x
- Issue published online: 9 JUN 2011
- Article first published online: 1 APR 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 21 MAR 2011 01:04PM EST
- Received 31 January 2011; accepted 21 February 2011; published online 1 April 2011.
- cell division;
- gene induction;
A classical view is that leaf shape is the result of local promotion of growth linked to cell proliferation. However, an alternative hypothesis is that leaf form is the result of local repression of growth in an otherwise growing system. Here we show that leaf form can indeed be manipulated in a directed fashion by local repression of growth. We show that targeting expression of an inhibitor of a cyclin-dependent kinase (KRP1) to the sinus area of developing leaves of Arabidopsis leads to local growth repression and the formation of organs with extreme lobing, including generation of leaflet-like organs. Directing KRP1 expression to other regions of the leaf using an miRNA target sequence tagging approach also leads to predictable novel leaf forms, and repression of growth in the leaf margin blocks the outgrowth of lobes, leading to a smoother perimeter. In addition, we show that decreased growth around the perimeter and across the leaf abaxial surface leads to a change in 3D form, as predicted by mechanical models of leaf growth. Our analysis provides experimental evidence that local repression of growth influences leaf shape, suggesting that it could be part of the mechanism of morphogenesis in plants in the context of an otherwise growing system.