Hyper-activation of the TCP4 transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana accelerates multiple aspects of plant maturation
Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011
© 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
The Plant Journal
Volume 67, Issue 4, pages 595–607, August 2011
How to Cite
Sarvepalli, K. and Nath, U. (2011), Hyper-activation of the TCP4 transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana accelerates multiple aspects of plant maturation. The Plant Journal, 67: 595–607. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04616.x
- Issue published online: 10 AUG 2011
- Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 22 APR 2011 08:31AM EST
- Received 27 March 2011; revised 18 April 2011; accepted 19 April 2011; published online 04 July 2011.
Figure S1. Expression pattern of TCP4:VP16-C transgene. (a). RT-PCR with TCP4:VP16-C-specific primers (upper panel) and UBQ10-specific primers (lower panel) on cDNA prepared from whole seedlings of indicated genotypes. (b). In situ hybridization showing expression pattern of the fusion transcript in a 1.5 mm long TCP4:VP16-C rosette leaf. Transverse leaf sections are arranged from tip (top) to base (bottom). Sense control did not show any expression of the transgene (data not shown). Scale bar = 200 μm.
Figure S2. Leaf growth in TCP4:VP16-C. (a, b). Average length (a) and width (b) of lamina plotted as a function of days after emergence of the 7th rosette leaf for tcp4-1 (●) and TCP4:VP16-C (○). Error bar indicates SD, n = 3. (c, d). Leaf length plotted against leaf width for the 8th (c) and the 9th (d) rosette leaf in tcp4-1 (●) and TCP4:VP16-C (○). (e). A rosette leaf from a short-day grown TCP4:VP16-C plant flattened on a glass plate by introducing cuts at the margins. Triangle marks a representative gap generated in the leaf margin due to flattening. Scale bar = 1 cm.
Figure S3. Floral organ size unaffected in TCP4:VP16-C. (a). Open flowers from indicated genotypes. Scale bar = 1 mm. (b, c). Mature petals are flattened (b) and their average area measured (c). Scale bar = 1 mm. Error bars in (c) indicate SD, n = 5. (d). Average length of stamen and carpel at maturity plotted for different genotypes. Error bar indicates SD, n = 5.
Figure S4. Growth of indeterminate organs in TCP4:VP16-C. (a, b). Comparison of root growth (a) and average lengths of primary (open bar), secondary (black bar) and tertiary (grey bar) roots (b) in indicated genotypes. Scale bar in (a) =1 cm. (c). Comparison of number of lateral roots. Error bar indicates SD, n ≥ 5. (d). Rate of increase in the length of proliferation zone in roots of tcp4-1 (●) and TCP4:VP16-C (○) plotted against days after sowing. Error bars indicate SD, n ≥ 6. (e). Comparison of stem length at maturity in indicated genotypes. Error bars indicate SD, n ≥ 15.
Figure S5. Premature arrest of cell division in TCP4:VP16-C. (a–e). Expression of mitosis-specific cyc1At::GUS reporter in the 7th rosette leaf of Col-0 and TCP4:VP16-C at various stages of leaf growth (leaf length indicated at the bottom). Scale bars = 0.2 mm in (a, b), 0.5 mm in (c, d), 1 mm in (e).
Figure S6. Comparison of cotyledon growth in Col-0 and tcp4-1 in presence of GA3. Average area of mature cotyledons from long-day grown seedlings at 17 DAS plotted against GA3 concentration for Col-0 (grey bar) and tcp4-1 (black bar). Error bars indicate SD, n = 10.
Table S1. Comparison of onset of flowering in tcp4-1 and TCP4:VP16-C under long days. Flowering time for tcp4-1 and TCP4:VP16 was measured as FT50 (number of days taken for 50% of population to flower) and as number of rosette leaves (mean ± SD). The numbers in parentheses refer to number of plants taken for study.
Table S2. Result of crosses performed to test pollen and carpel function in TCP4:VP16-C. “Percentage success” indicates the percentage of crossed flowers that formed elongated siliques with at least one bold seed.
Appendix S1. Experimental procedures for in situ hybridization and root proliferation zone analysis.
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