• Open Access

Two glycosyltransferases involved in anthocyanin modification delineated by transcriptome independent component analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana

Authors

  • Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara,

    1. RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan
    2. Graduate School of Nanobiosciences, Yokohama City University, 1-7-29, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan
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  • Atsushi Fukushima,

    1. RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan
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  • Ryo Nakabayashi,

    1. RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan
    2. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
    3. CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan
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  • Kousuke Hanada,

    1. RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan
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  • Fumio Matsuda,

    1. RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan
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    • Present address: Kobe Organization of Advanced Science and Technology, Kobe University, Japan.

  • Satoko Sugawara,

    1. RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan
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  • Eri Inoue,

    1. RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan
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  • Takashi Kuromori,

    1. RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan
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  • Takuya Ito,

    1. Antibiotics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
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  • Kazuo Shinozaki,

    1. RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan
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  • Bunyapa Wangwattana,

    1. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
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  • Mami Yamazaki,

    1. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
    2. CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan
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  • Kazuki Saito

    Corresponding author
    1. RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan
    2. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
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(fax +81 45 503 9489; e-mail ksaito@psc.riken.jp).

Summary

To identify candidate genes involved in Arabidopsis flavonoid biosynthesis, we applied transcriptome coexpression analysis and independent component analyses with 1388 microarray data from publicly available databases. Two glycosyltransferases, UGT79B1 and UGT84A2 were found to cluster with anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. Anthocyanin was drastically reduced in ugt79b1 knockout mutants. Recombinant UGT79B1 protein converted cyanidin 3-O-glucoside to cyanidin 3-O-xylosyl(1→2)glucoside. UGT79B1 recognized 3-O-glucosylated anthocyanidins/flavonols and uridine diphosphate (UDP)-xylose, but not 3,5-O-diglucosylated anthocyanidins, indicating that UGT79B1 encodes anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside: 2′′-O-xylosyltransferase. UGT84A2 is known to encode sinapic acid: UDP-glucosyltransferase. In ugt84a2 knockout mutants, a major sinapoylated anthocyanin was drastically reduced. A comparison of anthocyanin profiles in ugt84a knockout mutants indicated that UGT84A2 plays a major role in sinapoylation of anthocyanin, and that other UGT84As contribute the production of 1-O-sinapoylglucose to a lesser extent. These data suggest major routes from cyanidin 3-O-glucoside to the most highly modified cyanidin in the potential intricate anthocyanin modification pathways in Arabidopsis.

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