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Plastid stromules are induced by stress treatments acting through abscisic acid
Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011
© 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
The Plant Journal
Volume 69, Issue 3, pages 387–398, February 2012
How to Cite
Gray, J. C., Hansen, M. R., Shaw, D. J., Graham, K., Dale, R., Smallman, P., Natesan, S. K.A. and Newell, C. A. (2012), Plastid stromules are induced by stress treatments acting through abscisic acid. The Plant Journal, 69: 387–398. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04800.x
- Issue published online: 25 JAN 2012
- Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 27 SEP 2011 10:27AM EST
- Received 24 August 2011; revised 21 September 2011; accepted 23 September 2011.
- abiotic stress;
- abscisic acid;
Stromules are highly dynamic stroma-filled tubules that extend from the surface of all plastid types in all multi-cellular plants examined to date. The stromule frequency (percentage of plastids with stromules) has generally been regarded as characteristic of the cell and tissue type. However, the present study shows that various stress treatments, including drought and salt stress, are able to induce stromule formation in the epidermal cells of tobacco hypocotyls and the root hairs of wheat seedlings. Application of abscisic acid (ABA) to tobacco and wheat seedlings induced stromule formation very effectively, and application of abamine, a specific inhibitor of ABA synthesis, prevented stromule induction by mannitol. Stromule induction by ABA was dependent on cytosolic protein synthesis, but not plastid protein synthesis. Stromules were more abundant in dark-grown seedlings than in light-grown seedlings, and the stromule frequency was increased by transfer of light-grown seedlings to the dark and decreased by illumination of dark-grown seedlings. Stromule formation was sensitive to red and far-red light, but not to blue light. Stromules were induced by treatment with ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), the first committed ethylene precursor, and by treatment with methyl jasmonate, but disappeared upon treatment of seedlings with salicylate. These observations indicate that abiotic, and most probably biotic, stresses are able to induce the formation of stromules in tobacco and wheat seedlings.