Cytokinin-facilitated proteolysis of ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR 2 attenuates signaling output in two-component circuitry
Article first published online: 12 DEC 2011
© 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
The Plant Journal
Volume 69, Issue 6, pages 934–945, March 2012
How to Cite
Kim, K., Ryu, H., Cho, Y.-H., Scacchi, E., Sabatini, S. and Hwang, I. (2012), Cytokinin-facilitated proteolysis of ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR 2 attenuates signaling output in two-component circuitry. The Plant Journal, 69: 934–945. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04843.x
- Issue published online: 16 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 12 DEC 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 3 NOV 2011 12:40PM EST
- Received 8 September 2011; revised 31 October 2011; accepted 1 November 2011; published online 12 December 2011.
- protein degradation;
- two-component system;
- response regulator;
- hormone signaling
Cytokinins propagate signals via multiple phosphorelays in a mechanism similar to bacterial two-component systems. In Arabidopsis, signal outputs are determined by the activation state of transcription factors termed type-B Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs); however, their regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the proteolysis of ARR2, a type-B ARR, modulates cytokinin signaling outputs. ARR2-hemagglutinin (HA) is rapidly degraded by cytokinin treatment, but other type-B ARRs, such as ARR1-HA, ARR10-HA, ARR12-HA and ARR18-HA, are not. ARR2 degradation is mediated by the 26S proteasome pathway, and requires cytokinin-induced phosphorylation of Asp80 residue in the receiver domain. Through mutational analysis of amino acid residues in the receiver domain, we found that substitution of Lys90 with Gly inhibits ARR2 degradation. ARR2K90G-HA in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced cytokinin sensitivity in various developmental processes, including primary root elongation, callus induction, leaf senescence and hypocotyl growth. ARR2K90G-HA increased the expression of type-A ARRs, primary cytokinin-responsive genes and indicators of signaling output in two-component circuits. Expression of ARR2K90G-HA from the native ARR2 promoter in the arr2-4 knock-out mutant also increased cytokinin sensitivity. In conclusion, ARR2 proteolysis is involved in the maintenance of the primary signaling output for normal developmental processes mediated by cytokinin in Arabidopsis.