Oxidative and nitrosative-based signaling and associated post-translational modifications orchestrate the acclimation of citrus plants to salinity stress
Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012
© 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
The Plant Journal
Volume 72, Issue 4, pages 585–599, November 2012
How to Cite
Tanou, G., Filippou, P., Belghazi, M., Job, D., Diamantidis, G., Fotopoulos, V. and Molassiotis, A. (2012), Oxidative and nitrosative-based signaling and associated post-translational modifications orchestrate the acclimation of citrus plants to salinity stress. The Plant Journal, 72: 585–599. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2012.05100.x
- Issue published online: 2 NOV 2012
- Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 10 JUL 2012 11:48AM EST
- Received 8 December 2011; revised 29 June 2012; accepted 3 July 2012; published online 30 August 2012.
- salinity stress
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are involved in a plethora of cellular responses in plants; however, our knowledge on the outcomes of oxidative and nitrosative signaling is still unclear. To better understand how oxidative and nitrosative signals are integrated to regulate cellular adjustments to external conditions, local and systemic responses were investigated in the roots and leaves of sour orange plants (Citrus aurantium L.) after root treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or sodium nitroprusside (a nitric oxide donor), followed by NaCl stress for 8 days. Phenotypic and physiological data showed that pre-exposure to these treatments induced an acclimation to subsequent salinity stress that was accompanied by both local and systemic H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) accumulation. Combined histochemical and fluorescent probe approaches showed the existence of a vascular-driven long-distance reactive oxygen species and NO signaling pathway. Transcriptional analysis of genes diagnostic for H2O2 and NO signaling just after treatments or after 8 days of salt stress revealed tissue- and time-specific mechanisms controlling internal H2O2 and NO homeostasis. Furthermore, evidence is presented showing that protein carbonylation, nitration and S-nitrosylation are involved in acclimation to salinity stress. In addition, this work enabled characterization of potential carbonylated, nitrated and nitrosylated proteins with distinct or overlapping signatures. This work provides a framework to better understand the oxidative and nitrosative priming network in citrus plants subjected to salinity conditions.