Dwarf and deformed flower 1, encoding an F-box protein, is critical for vegetative and floral development in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors

  • Yuanlin Duan,

    Corresponding author
    1. Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
    2. Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Marker-Assisted Breeding of Rice, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Shengping Li,

    1. Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Zhiwei Chen,

    1. Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
    2. Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Marker-Assisted Breeding of Rice, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China
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  • Leilei Zheng,

    1. Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
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  • Zhijuan Diao,

    1. Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
    2. Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Marker-Assisted Breeding of Rice, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China
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  • Yuanchang Zhou,

    1. Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
    2. Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Marker-Assisted Breeding of Rice, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China
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  • Tao Lan,

    1. Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
    2. Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Marker-Assisted Breeding of Rice, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China
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  • Huazhong Guan,

    1. Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
    2. Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Marker-Assisted Breeding of Rice, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China
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  • Runsen Pan,

    1. Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
    2. Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Marker-Assisted Breeding of Rice, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China
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  • Yongbiao Xue,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics & Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Center for Plant Gene Research, Beijing 100101, China
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  • Weiren Wu

    Corresponding author
    1. Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
    2. Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Marker-Assisted Breeding of Rice, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China
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(e-mails: wuwr@fjau.edu.cn; ylduan863@fjau.edu.cn).

Summary

Recent studies have shown that F-box proteins constitute a large family in eukaryotes, and play pivotal roles in regulating various developmental processes in plants. However, their functions in monocots are still obscure. In this study, we characterized a recessive mutant dwarf and deformed flower 1-1 (ddf1-1) in Oryza sativa (rice). The mutant is abnormal in both vegetative and reproductive development, with significant size reduction in all organs except the spikelet. DDF1 controls organ size by regulating both cell division and cell expansion. In the ddf1-1 spikelet, the specification of floral organs in whorls 2 and 3 is altered, with most lodicules and stamens being transformed into glume-like organs and pistil-like organs, respectively, but the specification of lemma/palea and pistil in whorls 1 and 4 is not affected. DDF1 encodes an F-box protein anchored in the nucleolus, and is expressed in almost all vegetative and reproductive tissues. Consistent with the mutant floral phenotype, DDF1 positively regulates B-class genes OsMADS4 and OsMADS16, and negatively regulates pistil specification gene DL. In addition, DDF1 also negatively regulates the Arabidopsis LFY ortholog APO2, implying a functional connection between DDF1 and APO2. Collectively, these results revealed that DDF1, as a newly identified F-box gene, is a crucial genetic factor with pleiotropic functions for both vegetative growth and floral organ specification in rice. These findings provide additional insights into the molecular mechanism controlling monocot vegetative and reproductive development.

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