• ARDS;
  • blood transfusion;
  • directed maternal donations;
  • pulmonary oedema;
  • transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI);
  • transient leucopenia

summary Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is increasingly recognized as a major complication of transfusion therapy; it was the leading cause of transfusion-related fatalities in the United States in 2003. Most cases of TRALI that have been reported are in adult patients. We present two cases of TRALI that occurred in children and review the existing literature of paediatric TRALI. The paediatric TRALI case reports highlight two laboratory findings that can help in the diagnosis of TRALI: transient leucopenia and an elevated pulmonary oedema fluid/plasma protein ratio. These two simple diagnostic tests can help rule out other diagnoses and add confidence to the clinical diagnosis of TRALI. Finally, our first case also highlights the potential danger of directed maternal blood donations, which may increase the risk of paediatric TRALI.