SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abdulla S, Armstrong Schellenberg J, Nathan R et al. (2001) Impact on malaria morbidity of a programme supplying insecticide treated nets in children aged under 2 years in Tanzania: community cross-sectional study. British Medical Journal 322, 270273.
  • Alonso PL, Lindsay SW, Armstrong Schellenberg JR et al. (1993) A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bed nets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of the Gambia, West Africa: 6. The impact of the interventions on mortality and morbidity from malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 87 (Suppl. 2), 3744.
  • Asobayire FS, Adou P, Davidsson L, Cook JD & Hurrell RF (2001) Prevalence of iron deficiency with and without concurrent anemia in population groups with high prevalences of malaria and other infections: a study in Cote d'Ivoire. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74, 776782.
  • Biemba G, Dolmans D, Thuma PE, Weiss G & Gordeuk VR (2000) Severe anaemia in Zambian children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Tropical Medicine and International Health 5, 916.
  • Binka FN, Kubaje A, Adjuik M et al. (1996) Impact of permethrin impregnated bednets on child mortality in Kassena-Nankana district, Ghana: a randomized controlled trial. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1, 147154.
  • Bjorkman A, Brohult J, Sirleaf V, Willcox M & Bengtsson E (1980) Plasmodium falciparum resistance to pyrimethamine and chlorproguanil – host or parasite dependent? Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 74, 245248.
  • Bjorkman A, Brohult J, Pehrson PO et al. (1986) Monthly antimalarial chemotherapy to children in a holoendemic area of Liberia. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 80, 155167.
  • Bouvier P, Rougemont A, Breslow N et al. (1997) Seasonality and malaria in a west African village: does high parasite density predict fever incidence? American Journal of Epidemiology 145, 850857.
  • Brabin BJ, Premji Z & Verhoeff F (2001) An analysis of anemia and child mortality. Journal of Nutrition 131, 636S648S.
  • Brabin B, Prinsen-Geerligs P, Verhoeff F & Kazembe P (2003) Anaemia prevention for reduction of mortality in mothers and children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97, 3638.
  • Bradley DJ (1991) Morbidity and mortality at Pare-Taveta, Kenya and Tanzania, 1954–66: the effects of a period of malaria control. In: Disease and Mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (eds RGFeachem & DTJamison). Oxford University Press, Washington, pp. 248263. Published for the World Bank.
  • Bradley-Moore AM, Greenwood BM, Bradley AK et al. (1985a) A comparison of chloroquine and pyrimethamine as malaria chemoprophylactics in young Nigerian children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 79, 722727.
  • Bradley-Moore AM, Greenwood BM, Bradley AK et al. (1985b) Malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine in young Nigerian children: IV. Its effect on haematological measurements. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 79, 585595.
  • Breman JG (2001) The ears of the hippopotamus: manifestations, determinants, and estimates of the malaria burden. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 64, 111.
  • Brewster DR & Greenwood BM (1993) Seasonal variation of paediatric diseases in the Gambia, West Africa. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 13, 133146.
  • Cornet M, Le Hesran J-Y, Fievet N et al. (1998) Prevalence of and risk factors for anemia in young children in Southern Cameroon. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 58, 606611.
  • Craig MH, Snow RW & Le Sueur D (1999) A climate-based distribution model of malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Parasitology Today 15, 105111.
  • Curtis C, Maxwell C, Lemnge M et al. (2003) Scaling-up coverage with insecticide-treated nets against malaria in Africa: who should pay? Lancet Infectious Diseases 3, 304307.
  • D'Alessandro U, Olaleye BO, McGuire W et al. (1995) Mortality and morbidity from malaria in Gambian children after introduction of an impregnated bednet programme [see comments]. Lancet 345, 479483.
  • Deen JL, Walraven GE & von Seidlein L (2002) Increased risk for malaria in chronically malnourished children under 5 years of age in rural Gambia. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 48, 7883.
  • Delmont J, Ranque P, Balique H et al. (1981) The influence of malaria chemoprophylaxis on health of a rural community in West Africa (author's translation). Bulletin de la Societé de Pathologie Exotique Filiales 74, 600610.
  • Dolan G, Ter Kuile FO, Jacoutot-V J et al. (1993) Bed nets for the prevention of malaria and anaemia in pregnancy. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 87, 620626.
  • Draper CC (1960) Effect of malaria control on haemoglobin levels. Brookhaven Symposium Biology 5184, 14801483.
  • van Eijk AM, Ayisi JG, Ter Kuile FO et al. (2002) Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection as risk factors for anemia in infants in Kisumu, western Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 67, 4453.
  • El Samani FZ, Willett WC & Ware JH (1987) Nutritional and socio-demographic risk indicators of malaria in children under five: a cross-sectional study in a Sudanese rural community. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 90, 6978.
  • Fraser-Hurt N, Felger I, Edoh D et al. (1999) Effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on haemoglobin values, prevalence and multiplicity of infection with Plasmodium falciparum in a randomized controlled trial in Tanzania. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 93 (Suppl. 1), 4751.
  • Fuller NJ, Bates CJ, Hayes RJ et al. (1988) The effects of antimalarials and folate supplements on haematological indices and red cell folate levels in Gambian children. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 8, 6167.
  • Ghattas H, Fulford T & Prentice A (2003) Effect of moderate anaemia on later mortality in rural African children. Lancet 361, 20482050.
  • Greenwood BM, Bradley AK, Greenwood AM et al. (1987) Mortality and morbidity from malaria among children in a rural area of the Gambia, West Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81, 478486.
  • Greenwood BM, Greenwood AM, Bradley AK et al. (1988) Comparison of two strategies for control of malaria within a primary health care programme in the Gambia. Lancet 1, 11211127.
  • Greenwood BM, Greenwood AM, Smith AW et al. (1989) A comparative study of Lapudrine (chlorproguanil) and Maloprim (pyrimethamine and dapsone) as chemoprophylactics against malaria in Gambian children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83, 182188.
  • Habluetzel A, Diallo DA, Esposito F et al. (1997) Do insecticide-treated curtains reduce all-cause child mortality in Burkina Faso? Tropical Medicine and International Health 2, 855862.
  • Habluetzel A, Cuzin N, Diallo DA et al. (1999) Insecticide-treated curtains reduce the prevalence and intensity of malaria infection in Burkina Faso. Tropical Medicine and International Health 4, 557564.
  • Herzog B & Felton B (1994) Hemoglobin screening for normal newborns. Journal of Perinatology 14, 285289.
  • INDEPTH Editorial Team (Sankoh OA, Kahn K, Mwageni E, Ngom P & Nyarko P) (2002) Population and Health in Developing Countries. Vol. I. Population, Health and Survival at INDEPTH Sites. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.
  • Koram KA, Owusu-Agyei S, Fryauff DJ et al. (2003) Seasonal profiles of malaria infection, anaemia, and bednet use among age groups and communities in northern Ghana. Tropical Medicine and International Health 8, 793802.
  • Ter Kuile F, Terlouw DJ, Kariuki S et al. (2003a) Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria, anemia and growth in infants in an area of intense perennial malaria. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68 (Suppl. 4), 6877.
  • Ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Phillips-Howard PA et al. (2003b) Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria and all-cause morbidity in young children in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya: cross-sectional survey. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68 (Suppl. 4), 100107.
  • Lemnge MM, Msangeni HA, Ronn AM et al. (1997) Maloprim malaria prophylaxis in children living in a holoendemic village in north-eastern Tanzania. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91, 6873.
  • Lines J, Lengeler C, Cham K et al. (2003) Scaling-up and sustaining insecticide-treated net coverage. Lancet Infectious Diseases 3, 465466.
  • Lundsgaard-Hansen P (1996) Safe hemoglobin or hematocrit levels in surgical patients. World Journal of Surgery 20, 11821188.
  • MARA/ARMA (Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa)2002) Modelled Maps of Malaria Transmission in West Africa. http://www.mara.org.za, accessed 2002.
  • Marbiah NT, Petersen E, David K, Magbity E, Lines J & Bradley DJ (1998) A controlled trial of lambda-cyhalothrin-impregnated bed nets and/or dapsone/pyrimethamine for malaria control in Sierra Leone. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 58, 16.
  • Marsh K, Forster D, Waruiru C et al. (1995) Indicators of life-threatening malaria in African children. New England Journal of Medicine 332, 13991404.
  • Massaga JJ, Kitua AY, Lemnge MM et al. (2003) Effect of intermittent treatment with amodiaquine on anaemia and malarial fevers in infants in Tanzania: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 361, 18531860.
  • Maxwell CA, Msuya E, Sudi M, Njunwa KJ, Carneiro IA & Curtis CF (2002) Effect of community-wide use of insecticide-treated nets for 3–4 years on malarial morbidity in Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and International Health 7, 10031008.
  • McClean KL & Senthilselvan A (2002) Mosquito bed nets: implementation in rural villages in Zambia and the effect on subclinical parasitaemia and haemoglobin. Tropical Doctor 32, 139142.
  • McDermott JM, Slutsker L, Steketee RW, Wirima JJ, Breman JG & Heymann DL (1996) Prospective assessment of mortality among a cohort of pregnant women in rural Malawi. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 55, 6670.
  • McGregor IA, Williams K, Billewicz WZ & Thomson AM (1966) Haemoglobin concentration and anaemia in young west African (Gambian) children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 60, 650667.
  • Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Hirt R et al. (1997) Randomised placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis for prevention of severe anaemia and malaria in Tanzanian infants [see comments]. Lancet 350, 844850.
  • Menendez C, Fleming AF & Alonso PL (2000) Malaria-related anaemia. Parasitology Today 16, 469476.
  • Menon A, Snow RW, Byass P, Greenwood BM, Hayes RJ & N'jie AB (1990) Sustained protection against mortality and morbidity from malaria in rural Gambian children by chemoprophylaxis given by village health workers. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84, 768772.
  • Millennium Assembly of the United Nations (2003) Millennium Development Goals. http://www.developmentgoals.org/Child_Mortality.htm, accessed October, 2003.
  • Muller O, Traore C, Jahn A & Becher H (2003) Severe anaemia in west African children: malaria or malnutrition? Lancet 361, 8687.
  • Mung'ala VO & Snow RW (1994) Death registration on the Kenyan Coast. East African Medical Journal 71, 747750.
  • Murray CJ & Lopez AD (1996) Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp. 320327, 525.
  • Mustaring, Tranggana S & Daud D (1990) Capillary microhematocrit measurement as a screening test for anemia in children. Paediatrics Indonesia 30, 241247.
  • Mwaniki DL, Omwega AM, Muniu EM et al. (2002) Anemia and Status of Iron, Vitamin A and Zinc in Kenya: the 1999 National Survey Report. Report prepared for the Ministry of Health, Government of Kenya.
  • Nabarro D & Taylor E (1998) The ‘Roll Back Malaria’ campaign. Science 280, 20672068.
  • Nacher M (2002) Malarial anaemia: a crossroad? Medical Hypotheses 59, 363365.
  • Nussenblatt V & Semba RD (2002) Micronutrient malnutrition and the pathogenesis of malarial anemia. Acta Tropica 82, 321337.
  • O'Dempsey TJ, McArdle TF, Laurence BE, Lamont AC, Todd JE & Greenwood BM (1993) Overlap in the clinical features of pneumonia and malaria in African children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 87, 662665.
  • ORC Macro – MEASURE DHS+ (2001) Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). http://www.measuredhs.com, Madagascar 1997, Mali 2000/01, Uganda 2000/01 and Benin 2001.
  • Otoo LN, Snow RW, Menon A, Byass P & Greenwood BM (1988) Immunity to malaria in young Gambian children after a two-year period of chemoprophylaxis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82, 5965.
  • Premji Z, Lubega P, Hamisi Y et al. (1995) Changes in malaria associated morbidity in children using insecticide treated mosquito nets in the Bagamoyo district of coastal Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 46, 147153.
  • Prinsen Geerligs PD, Brabin BJ & Eggelte TA (2003) Analysis of the effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children on haematological responses, morbidity and mortality. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 81, 205216.
  • Schellenberg D, Menendez C, Kahigwa E et al. (2001) Intermittent treatment for malaria and anaemia control at time of routine vaccinations in Tanzanian infants: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 357, 14711477.
  • Schellenberg D, Armstrong Schellenberg JRM, Mushi A et al. (2003) The silent burden of anaemia in Tanzanian children: a community-based study. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 81, 581590.
  • Shankar AH (2000) Nutritional modulation of malaria morbidity and mortality. Journal of Infectious Diseases 182, S3753.
  • Sharmanov A (2000) Anemia Testing Manual for Population-based Surveys. Macro International Inc., Calverton.
  • Shiff C, Checkley W, Winch P, Premji Z, Minjas J & Lubega P (1996) Changes in weight gain and anaemia attributable to malaria in Tanzanian children living under holoendemic conditions. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 90, 262265.
  • Slutsker L, Taylor TE, Wirima JJ & Steketee RW (1994) In-hospital morbidity and mortality due to malaria-associated severe anaemia in two areas of Malawi with different patterns of malaria infection. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88, 548551.
  • Snow RW, Rowan KM & Greenwood BM (1987) A trial of permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of malaria in Gambian children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81, 563567.
  • Snow RW, Lindsay SW, Hayes RJ & Greenwood BM (1988) Permethrin-treated bed nets (mosquito nets) prevent malaria in Gambian children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82, 838842.
  • Snow RW, Bastos de Azevedo I, Lowe BS et al. (1994) Severe childhood malaria in two areas of markedly different falciparum transmission in east Africa. Acta Tropica 57, 289300.
  • Stoltzfus RJ, Chwaya HM, Montresor A, Albonico M, Savioli L & Tielsch JM (2000) Malaria, hookworm and recent fever are related to anemia and iron status indicators in 0- to 5-y old Zanzibari children and these relationships change with age. Journal of Nutrition 130, 17241733.
  • Stoltzfus RJ, Mullany R & Black RE (2003) Malnutrition and the Global Burden of Disease: Iron Deficiency Anaemia and Health Outcomes. Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University, USA.
  • The Global Fund against AIDS, TB and Malaria (2003) http://www.globalfundatm.org/, accessed 8 September 2003.
  • Todd JE, De Francisco A, O'Dempsey TJ & Greenwood BM (1994) The limitations of verbal autopsy in a malaria-endemic region. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 14, 3136.
  • Totin D, Ndugwa C, Mmiro F, Perry RT, Jackson JB & Semba RD (2002) Iron deficiency anemia is highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected infants in Uganda. Journal of Nutrition 132, 423429.
  • Vasquez R & Villena M (2001) Normal hematological values for healthy persons living at 4000 meters in Bolivia. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2, 361367.
  • Verhoef H, West CE, Veenemans J, Beguin Y & Kok FJ (2002) Stunting may determine the severity of malaria-associated anemia in African children. Pediatrics 110, e48.
  • Villamor E, Mbise R, Spiegelman D, Ndossi G & Fawzi WW (2000) Vitamin A supplementation and other predictors of anemia among children from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 62, 590597.
  • Walker N, Schwartlander B & Bryce J (2002) Meeting international goals in child survival and HIV/AIDS. Lancet 360, 284289.
  • World Health Organization (1959) Iron Deficiency Anaemia. Report of a Study Group. World Health Organization, Geneva, Report No. 182.
  • World Health Organization Communicable Diseases Cluster (2000) Severe falciparum malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 94 (Suppl. 1), S190.
  • World Health Organization, UNICEF and University of the United Nations (2001) Iron Deficiency Anaemia. Assessment, Prevention, and Control. A Guide for Programme Managers. WHO, Geneva, WHO/NHD/01.3.
  • Yadav RS, Sampath TR, Sharma VP, Adak T & Ghosh SK (1998) Evaluation of lambdacyhalothrin-impregnated bednets in a malaria endemic area of India: Part 3. Effects on malaria incidence and clinical measures. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 14, 444450.