A cluster randomized-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of Stepping Stones in preventing HIV infections and promoting safer sexual behaviour amongst youth in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: trial design, methods and baseline findings
Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2006
Tropical Medicine & International Health
Volume 11, Issue 1, pages 3–16, January 2006
How to Cite
Jewkes, R., Nduna, M., Levin, J., Jama, N., Dunkle, K., Khuzwayo, N., Koss, M., Puren, A., Wood, K. and Duvvury, N. (2006), A cluster randomized-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of Stepping Stones in preventing HIV infections and promoting safer sexual behaviour amongst youth in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: trial design, methods and baseline findings. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 11: 3–16. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01530.x
- Issue online: 5 JAN 2006
- Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2006
- 1994) Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. American Journal of Psychiatry 151, 1132–1136. , , et al. (
- 1992) Games for Actors and Non-Actors. Routledge, London, UK. (
- DFID Briefing Note 2 (2004) DFID Knowledge Program on HIV/AIDS and STIs. MEMA kwa Vijana: Community Randomized Trial of an Adolescent Sexual Health Program in Rural Mwanza, Tanzania. DFID, London, UK.
- 2000) Field Performance by Nurses of Rapid, Whole Blood Tests for HIV Infection in South African Township. Poster Presented at the XIII International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa, 9–14 July 2000. , , et al. (
- 2004a) Gender-based violence, relationship power and risk of prevalent HIV infection among women attending antenatal clinics in Soweto, South Africa. The Lancet 363, 1415–1421. , , , , & (
- 2004b) Transactional sex among women in Soweto, South Africa: prevalence, risk factors and association with HIV infection. Social Science and Medicine 59, 1581–1592. , , , , & (
- 2004) HIV Vaccines: Where are we and Where are we Going? Plenary Paper at the XVth International AIDS Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 11–16 July 2004 (ThPl15). (
- 2004) School-based HIV prevention programmes for African youth. Social Science and Medicine 58, 1337–1351. & (
- 1999) Simple sample size calculation for cluster-randomized trials. International Journal of Epidemiology 28, 319–326. & (
- 1998 ) Stepping Stones, South African Adaptation. Medical Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa (adapted from the origin Stepping Stones package by Alice Welbourn). & (
- 2002) Stepping Stones, South African Adaptation, 2nd edn. Medical Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa. , & (
- 2003) Syndromic management of sexually-transmitted infections and behavior change interventions on transmission of HIV-1 in rural Uganda: a community randomized trial. The Lancet 361, 645–652. , , et al. (
- 2002) Participatory Learning and Action: with 100 Field Methods (Studies in Rural Participation Series). Concept Publisher Co, New Delhi, India. (
- 2005) Young people's sexual health in South Africa: HIV prevalence and sexual behaviours from a nationally representative household survey. AIDS 19, 1525–1534. , , et al. (
- 1995) A Trainer's Guide for Participatory Learning and Action. Participatory Methodology Series, Sustainable Agriculture Programme, International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK. , , & (
- 2000) Measuring sexual relationship power in HIV/STD research. Sex Roles 42, 637–660. , , et al. (
- 1981) The analysis of categorical data from complex sample surveys: chi-squared tests for goodness of fit and independence in two-way tables. Journal of the American Statistical Association 76, 221–230. & (
- 1984) On chi-squared tests for multi-way contingency tables with cell proportions estimated from survey data. Annals of Statistics 12, 46–60. & (
- 2004) State of the Art Report on Development and Use of Microbicides. Plenary Paper at the XVth International AIDS Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 11–16 July 2004 (ThPl14). (
- 2000) Evaluation of the Abbott Determine HIV-1/2 Rapid Assay using Samples from the Western Cape Region, South Africa. Poster Presented at the XIII International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa, 9–14 July 2000. , , , , & (
- 1993) development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption II. Addiction 88, 791–804. , , , & (
- 2002) Laboratory and Field Evaluation of the Performance of Simple and Rapid HIV Tests in Mozambique. Poster Presented at the XIV International AIDS Conference, Barcelona, 7–12 July 2002 (MoPeB3104). , , , , & (
- Statacorp (2003) Stata Statistical Software: Release 8.0. Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA.
- Statistics South Africa (2004) Available at: http://www.statssa.gov.za/census01/html/RSAPrimary.pdf. Last accessed 5 December 2005.
- 1995) The right not to know HIV test results. The Lancet 345, 969–970. , , & (
- The Voluntary HIV-1 Counselling and Testing Efficacy Study Group (2000) Efficacy of voluntary HIV-1 counselling and testing in individuals and couples in Kenya, Tanzania and Trinidad: a randomised trial. The Lancet 356, 103–112.
- 1977) Assessing depressive symptoms in five psychiatric populations. American Journal of Epidemiology 106, 203–214. , , , & (
- 1995) Stepping Stones. A Training Package on HIV/AIDS, Communication and Relationship Skills. Strategies for Hope Training Series No. 1, Actionaid, London, UK. (
- 1996) Stepping Stones: a positive force for change. Reproductive Health Matters 4, 177–178. (
- 1990) Springboard. Hawthorn Press, Stroud, UK. & (
- World Health Organization (WHO) (2000) WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence: Core Questionnaire and WHO Instrument – Version 9. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
- World Health Organization (WHO) (2004) Rapid HIV Tests: Guidelines for Use in HIV Testing and Counselling Services in Resource-constrained Settings. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
- 2002) Evaluation of the Performance of Non-laboratory Staff in the Use of Simple Rapid HIV Antibody Assays at New Start Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) Centres. Poster Presented at the XIV International AIDS Conference, Barcelona, 7–12 July 2002 (MoPeB3110). , & (